Two Vortex Rings Colliding in SLOW MOTION - Smarter Every Day 195

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    This took 4 years to recreate. 12 Hour edit here:
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    High Resolution images will be provided to the Patrons of Smarter Every Day at:
    If you’d like to support big adventures like this, consider becomingbeing a Patron!
    I’ve been chasing this problem for over 4 years. The 12 hour edit chronicles the entire process after David Linderman and myself started working on it in earnest.
    People don't tweet me their thoughts about videos enough. I'd love to hear from you.
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    Song “Rings in Rings in Rings” by Gordon McGladdery of A Shell In The Pit
    Listen to it on Spotify: (It helps
    All A Shell in the Pit music available at:
    A Vortex Ring is also called a Toroidal Vortex
    Original Research Paper by T. T. Lim & T. B. Nickels (Published in Nature 1992)
    Governing Equations of Fluid Mechanics
    Numerical Analysis of this phenomena
    Interesting Research Papers on Vortex Ring Reconnection
    Other Videos created by Dr. T T Lim
    Flow Visualization, A Book by Dr. T T Lim
    Why we typically don’t talk about angular momentum in fluids.
    We used a computer controlled cylinder to pump fluid behind a rubber membrane to fire toroidal vortices out of the vortex cannons.
    We fixed one of the vortex cannon in a stationary position, and used a multi-axis microscope stage to align a second cannon to it… which sounds incredibly easy, until you realize that
    DYE density was an experiment all on its own.
    If the density of the dye mix was light than water, the vortex would go up.
    If the dye was more dense than water the vortex would fall.
    We had to overcome SO MANY VARIABLES to overcome and we basically spent about 4 hours figuring each variable.
    Water/dye temperature differential
    Water turbulence
    Water turbidity (cloudiness or haziness of a fluid)
    How to reset the aquarium
    Cannon Spacing
    Cannon Nozzle
    Cannon Shape
    Dye homogeneity in the vortex itself
    The piston displacement volume
    The piston stroke speed
    Rubber diaphragm tension, would make one side fire faster than the other.
    Water or air to drive diaphram?
    Firing speed (too slow and they drift, too fast and turbulence tears apart secondaries)
    We did a complete redesign of the cannon 3 different times.
    The Dye loading method was changed several times
    At times we tried to maintain negative pressure on the cannon chamber… we also tried to put shutters on the front of the muzzle. Ultimately I decided it was ok to live with dye dripping out of the front.
    We had to premix the dyes and eventually we got there.
    It got to the point where we didn’t even really know what success looked like and always thought we were there.
    (If I did this right these should be working Amazon affiliate links to purchase the stuff I like to use. When people purchase from these links it will support Smarter Every Day.)
    ❓Mystery Item (just for fun):
    📷Camera I use :
    Favorite Lens:
    Lav Mic:
    My Tripod:
    My Multi-tool:
    💾How I get footage off my phone:
    Travel Tripod:
    Favorite Bidet:
    🥽Goggle Up! :
    If you appreciate what you've learned in this video feel free to pitch a few dollars Smarter Every Day by becoming a Patron.

    Publicerades den 2 år sedan


    1. SmarterEveryDay

      Thank you to the Patrons of Smarter Every Day for helping me do things like this:

      1. Anupam Jain

        SmaterEveryDay This is very interesting. I have a few questions. Can you share the schematic of the device? Why is dye not mixing with water in the cylinder? Is there a membrane between the air and die chamber?

      2. Harbey Bear

        Should've named the second channel "SmarterEveryOtherDay"

      3. Simon Lachapelle

        Do you believe in God ?

      4. IIatpa Zerento

        @skyler cox Corbett opp

      5. Dinastia Shalom

        Tudo forma desenho maguinetico de frequência ?

    2. SupaSteve

      this looks like a galaxy commercial

    3. Lindsey Reyes

      It seems to me that the low pressure theory proposed by Pettit makes perfect sense. The collision creates a new vector plane perpendicular to the original vectors (if they perfectly cancel each other out). The pockets of low pressure draw in the surrounding fluids, creating what become high-pressure zones. Since a vortex is a traveling area of high pressure, it would then make these new rings traveling out in the plane created by the collision. I could be totally off - I didn't study math or science in school, and I'm just an ESL tutor and homeschooling parent. That's just how I'm trying to wrap my brain around it.

    4. Jazmi Hamizan

      0:00 If AMD and Intel work together

    5. Akshin Barathi


    6. Roberta Cristina

      this looks like a star sploding in a 2d wordl

    7. Nico Sosa

      If you listen very close you can tell he go’s : shhh

    8. Gary Gelini

      All things must come to an end, unfortunately so does this video, two years late but the impact is the same.

    9. boontie

      Great practical example of Helmholtz’s second theorem!!

    10. Aarsh Sathia

      It's sooo beautiful ❤️

    11. Justine Justine

      Thank you for doing this, please keep it up.

    12. SCP 173

      The music from 2:28 to 5:54 reminds me so much of the flood 3: themes and variations. The use of it, the rise and fall from majestic and exuberant to quiet and faint. Ah the memories

    13. бульбахаб бубагуба

      I think in a very similar way galaxies are formed. Incredibly hard work done! Thanks!

    14. The Beginner Electronic Maaann

      1:26 Mr. lenderman, guess the quote

    15. Dae T.

      dude my jaw was on the floor - that was, in a word, stunning

    16. LiveToTheDeath

      Who gave this a thumbs down??? Why???

    17. Chase c

      Funny how someone in the future will do the same thing cause the video was on your cam which by then will be very old low quality... NoIcE

    18. Steve _

      I feel like this experiment would work better in a simulation, was that ever attempted?

    19. Robert Wolfstream

      Everyone died around me till became a sour prick with nothing but darkness in my soul

    20. Robert Wolfstream

      I wanna be like you how are you such a gem of a human being that spreads nothing but happiness I need 1/100 of what you have to be a better human thank u

    21. ABU 2020

      So what use to mankind these peripheral vortices?

    22. ChronoQC

      As an artistic person i find myself interested in science . science is art to my eyes .

    23. foamfingermaker

      you should build a device that has a total of 6 nozzles so you can direct the vortex rings from 6 opposing directions along 3 axis. Careful you might recreate the universe.

    24. Jake

      It was about wasting money

    25. CA RL Anagse

      Bro i can watch this all day I swear

    26. xpizzaplace100

      Now I'm smarter

    27. Anupam Jain

      SmaterEveryDay This is very interesting. I have a few questions. Can you share the schematic of the device? Why is dye not mixing with water in the cylinder? Is there a membrane between the air and die chamber?

    28. Adomas Vidikas

      I cried

    29. 21 tryhard


    30. Noe Collazo

      When two professional vapers meet

    31. BrightTheGeniusYT

      Instructions unclear......I've opened a hole to another universe

    32. Santos Esparza

      Lmao 😂 the problem is ... is that it was filmed with a potato 🤣

    33. Justin Green

      You ready for it? Cosmic inflation.

    34. Alikon Hersak

      Dude, that was incredibly beautiful

    35. Damian Liew

      The 6.6k people who disliked this were probably drunk or high

    36. How to Suck at Gaming

      Have you thought about doing this with distilled water to minimize the interaction of the dyes with exfiltrates and minerals in the water?

    37. U GONA DIE

      "Fill the tank back up, and give it another shot" - Destin 2018. Two years ago.😥 Why am I being told this now. Thank you man.

    38. Derek Savard

      Remind me of the acoustic levitation video. Both are magic.

    39. kaneki -ken

      Dude made our dreams come true. He deserves respect.

    40. Sekat

      faço isso ai no narga

    41. Gian Pacayra


    42. RNDM_ ID

      Dude... this is the most breathtaking and satisfying video on SEprom. Amazing.

    43. Kevin Vermeulen

      A 8 minute video that took 3 years to make. All I can say is respect man ! Keep on the good work !

    44. Aloysius Kurnia

      What's your superpower? Destin: I _loved_ fluid dynamics.

    45. Dalton Lightfoot

      Try this again with all three axis ( x, y, z )

    46. Ecktor

      You’re a god dang pioneer man 🙁

    47. Michael Shook

      What if the reason for the smaller vortex is from that low pressure spot getting created and sucking the twirling liquid into it, pretty much creating the exact same environment as the original puff from the machines that made the big vortex. So the liquid that gets sucked into it from both sides turns into a secondary "puff" which would create the new vortex and pull the rest of the liquid along.

    48. rpaul sanders

      Share your blessing bro... just for our recovery after the hit of super typhoon. Big fan here from the Philippines❤ BTC: 3P3uqX1RhvmkytsCpfd6ktctfU8yZC8S7b

    49. Anthony Burke

      Why didn’t they ask Paddy Lim

    50. Matheus Ludolf

      You and that guy from "Two Minute Papers" youtube channel could do a research and try to recreate it with some fluid simulation algorithm. Maybe it can work out better then expected and you may be able to find a mathemathical explanation to this phenomenom. I hope I could help ^^

    51. The next level Programmer

      7:45 Yes this is the first video and it earned the subscription.

    52. The next level Programmer

      You did this and now we're watching it. Just watching it. How cool it'd had been if we did it. Awesome work. Lots of hard work. And you are here because of this curiosity to learn and make others learn. Really impressed with your hard work. 7:41 Not only me, there are thousands other who watched this great video and learnt something. Thanks for posting such great things that were impossible for us (especially me) to even imagine.

    53. LalleDK

      why is the title of the video in Danish?

    54. Rondo2ooo

      Destin, make a screen saver out of these materials. Thank me later ;-)

    55. Teamswooshh

      i came here to see rings collide and now i’m inspired to cure cancer

    56. TonyNguyenJr

      Who knew I’d be at the gym watching two circles collide underwater instead of working out..

    57. Theron Bonneur

      I mean this could be way off but could the rings inverse because of something like the The Dzhanibekov Effect but because of pressures? I don't know how this effect would work with pressures but spinning is spinning...

    58. Chris Required

      You're an absolute genius my friend.

    59. T Rev

      2:00 “An article written by Dr. T. T. Kim” Dr. T. B. Nickels feeling very slighted

    60. Finalminer

      SEprom could not have picked a better time to recommend this to me

    61. Maxwell Edison

      Hi Destin. I would like to thank you for something. I am alone on a project that was meant for a team of software engineers for a three month now. And I had started to exhaust and get a bit despaired by this time. Your words about persistence brought back some motivation and brightness to my work. So - Thank you a lot! You are doing a great job, both by popularizing scientific method and being a good person! "Just fill the tank back up, and give it another shot"👍

    62. Nick Gasparis

      dude make a 24 hour video of this please

    63. Asriel Dreemurr

      Wow. This was really motivating. Thanks Destin!

    64. Nathan Gehman

      No matter how many times I come back to this video, it never ceases to amaze me.

    65. oneshot music

      Yo what if this is what happened with the universe

    66. Xeno Bardock

      Go even further. Try this. Spin red vortex ring counter-clockwise and blue vortex ring clockwise so its like you have vortex rings acting like positive and negative charges or north and south poles of magnet. Going even further beyond, add a secondary spin to both vortex rings so the entire thing is rotating in one direction like earth or galaxy. See if you can get to a final result, a stable spinning dual opposing ring vortex. I wonder if you will get the colors to take shape of spinning galaxy or a planet.

    67. Jonathan Honeycutt

      Didn't know you had a second channel. Subscribed.

    68. Kakarot Goku

      Dbz be like 5:01

    69. Killah Gorillah

      Destin looks like the adult version of the kid from The Sandlot

    70. MusicalSavior23

      You can blow a smoke ring and if you do it properly, it'll "staircase" into horizontal rings that get smaller and smaller and smaller. You ring turns into about fifteen. It's pretty interesting, too, because like these it, starts vertically and ends horizontally.

    71. Emberwatch Studio

      Same thing happens when two girls hug each other.

    72. Costa Fudas

      My subscription experience is so bizarre. I watch a lot of your videos and collaborations and now realized that I never did subscribe to you at all during this video. At the end you said how cool it would be if this was the video I subscribed on. it was So cool.

    73. MeanderingMarley

      Are the secondaries affected by variations in the water temperature?

    74. thehudy1 _

      5:38 I really needed this dude, currently enduring finals week

    75. A Single French Fry

      Uh... sorry if I come across as ignorant. But what’s the practical use? How does it make our lives better?

    76. Jared Rypka-Hauer

      Engineer: OMG U GUYS CHK THIS OUT!! Physicist: Hmmmmm... Also Physicist: Hey Engineers - Can ya make one that does {the new thing}? Engineers: Heck ya!! Nobel Committee: And the ayes have it! Welcome to the Nobel Laureate Lyfe, yo... it chose you. 🤜🏻🤛🏻 Because science.

    77. Drakonus

      People who vape: Wait, I can do that.

    78. shop shop

      What's different but the same? Two Lava lamp's in one container, at a higher speed.

    79. Maverick Moto

      Destin we get it, you vape.

    80. shop shop

      Make a tee shirt out of this, please.

    81. Edo Gelbard

      i understand how the two colliding waves of pressure would form regularly spaced (if perfectly symmetrical waves) areas of high and low pressure radiating from the center, but any luck simulating what happens next using the new imaging?

    82. Andre Ungoogable

      and with super fuilds?

    83. Shaikh Owais

      Inspired me indeed

    84. BC Aquino

      Your parents explaining this to you be like “When two vortex rings love each other very much, they make other vortex rings.”

    85. Takudzwa Mudoti

      David is a genius!!!!!!!!!!!! I wish you could let him talk more

    86. Henley Wu

      “Full the tank and get back up” best quote I’ve heard so far. Matter of fact I’m going to live by it. Such wise words from a wise man

    87. Eduardo Villalobos

      What happens if you do four of them at the same time from up, down, left, right?

    88. Bubblezov Love

      I wonder what it would take to do this experiment in air? A couple of vortex shooters and some coloured smoke might actually be enough....

    89. Mr Anonymous

      Looks like the perfect collision is a Mandelbrot set of infinte rings.

      1. MeanderingMarley

        Just imagine if you could set up a parallel collision so that collision A's secondary ring at the 3 o'clock position would collide with B's secondary at its 9 o'clock. Tertiary rings!

    90. creepaze

      If the rings maintain the way they flow in a closed ring then when the two rings collide and break from the low pressure the cut ends being close together may join together as they have the same direction of rotation if it were to connect into one vortex ring. So they form a new ring that is perpendicular to the radius of the vortex.

    91. Mason Krcmarik

      Try skateboarding.. half of your “fails” involve heavy collisions with cement .. then get back up and do it again

    92. Toxinator

      why is nobody talking about the music in this

    93. Tezla Alchemia

      Does the secondary impact of each little low pressure zone form near perfect collisions of their own, resulting in rings the same way the primary impact creates the big ring? If that's the case the scaling this up could result in a 3rd tier of rings as the secondary rings create their own low pressure zones. Even if the larger scale doesn't produce those results, I am curious if the volume of the water being displaced effects the resulting ring/rings significantly or if perhaps more low pressure zones would be created so that rather than bigger secondary rings, you would see a greater number of equally small rings.

    94. Tyson Coote

      I would love to see the fluid dynamics of how vortices converge around a "group" of solid spheres with a flow exerted on them in one direction ,has anyone done this before? p.s LOve your work ,fascinating !!

    95. JubiTheVille

      How It's Made... Galaxies

    96. Peter Lawrence

      been watching youtube videos for a really long time, this is the best I've seen, probably since I'm a machinist and now think I absolutely have to build one of these, wow !!!

    97. SH Uchiha

      so beautiful

    98. erbil erdoğan

      ip baskısı mı?

    99. Domenic Maiani

      I love the message on persistence, thank you for sharing this!

    100. Daniel Leyland

      Could this be a visualisation of the Big Bang? Material moving through a vacuum in incredible density, collides with replicant matter with forces in the opposite direction - immediately expands along one axis and eventually disperses as the particles grow further from each other?